Research

Research articles are organized by category for your convenience.

5 KEY QUESTIONS TO ASK

When researching stem cells or when considering stem cell therapy, one has to be careful with his/her selection since not all stem cells are equal and not all providers are compliant with current FDA regulations. At Southern Stem Cell Institute, we have the most viable source of stem cells available to effectively treat our patients. Adult stem cell therapies (stem cells obtained from the aging body) have many disadvantages and the results obtained are far inferior and inconsistent. Stem cells from the Wharton’s Jelly of the umbilical cord of the newborn are high in quantity and quality. They can replicate at much higher rates and therefore heal, repair, modulate and renew soft tissue much better and much faster. Make sure that when you compare stem cell sources and products, you consider the advantages and disadvantages, and verify the amount of live MSC/cc of the end-product. Most providers or manufacturers can NOT verify the amount of live MSC’s in their product. 

QUESTION 1: WHAT IS THE SOURCE OF THE STEM CELLS?

Stem cells can be obtained from various sources. Not all sources of stem cells are equal in their capability to repair and re-engineer soft tissue, connective tissue or nerve tissue.

  • The use of embryonic stem cells is illegal. In addition to the moral and ethical issues that exist when harvesting stem cells from aborted fetal tissue, embryonic stem cells have been shown to cause teratomas (tumors) in mice. Embryonic stem cells are only used in research and will NEVER be used in the therapeutic applications for humans.
  • Adults stem cells (derived from bone marrow or adipose tissue of the patient) have many disadvantages compared to MSC (mesynchymal stem cells) derived from the umbilical cord matrix (Wharton’s Jelly).

Research clearly shows the benefits of Umbilical Cord/Wharton’s Jelly MSC (mesynchymal stem cells) versus MSC from Bone Marrow or Adipose Tissue.

The number of stem cells in our body significantly declines with age:

 Benefits of “Young” stem cells (MSC from the umbilical cord matrix):

  • Are obtained from non-invasive procedures unlike  bone marrow collection, which increase risk, cost and liability.
  • Have a far greater ‘fitness’ level and therefore are able to replicate at greater and faster rates.
  • Have a much greater and faster healing response.
  • Have a higher proliferative capacity.
  • Have a stronger inflammatory protective effect and a strong migratory ability toward the site of inflammation.
  • Have a larger amount of different growth factors, especially bFGF 20.
  • Have the ability to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, neural cells and Schwann cells; and help organize tendon collagen fibers and induce hepatocyte differentiation.
  • Have been shown to differentiate into nervous system cells, liver, pancreas, heart, and other organs of the body.
  • Are more robust. The range and level of specific cytokines is greater than those expressed by adult MSC.
  • Sustain less damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS).
  • Retain telomere at the highest possible length which protects them from premature loss of viability.
  • Continue to express molecules with immune-modulating activity after they are extracted from the umbilical cord and able to pass this ability to their progeny. This enables the infused donor cells, whether differentiated or not, to engraft into the diseased target organ and positively modify its microenvironment to promote re-population. The infusion of immunomodulatory MSC provide a significant advantage by better overcoming host responses, providing the needed functional bridging action, and modifying the underlying pathological conditions at the basis of disease.
  • Provoke little to no immune response when transplanted; cell rejection is not an issue and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching is not necessary (as with adult stem cells).
  • Have Immunomodulatory properties: they do not pose risk for metastasis of tumor cells and in fact promote proteins that halt the cell cycle of cancer cells and promote tumor suppressing genes.

All the above research facts (references listed below) are easily illustrated in the following real-life example:

When a young child falls and cuts him/herself, how long does that cut or wound take to heal? 24-48 hours, right? What if you fall and cut yourself? Indeed, several weeks or even longer. That’s because the healing properties of the young child are at its peak. The young MSC (mesynchymal stem cells) have a far greater and faster healing capacity than our aged body stem cells.

Besides the significantly reduced QUANTITY and QUALITY of adult derived MSC, the other essential components for effective tissue repair and tissue engineering are missing with adult stem cell therapies. These other essential components include growth factors, cytokines, HA (hyaluronic acid), and several other bio-active molecules.

CONCLUSION: THE YOUNGER THE STEM CELLS, THE MORE POWERFUL THE STEM CELLS.

Stem cells from the newborn are much higher in quantity and have the ability to replicate much faster. Therefore, young stem cells heal, repair, modulate and renew soft tissue much better and much faster.

QUESTION 2: HOW MANY LIVE MESYNCHYMAL STEM CELLS DOES THE END PRODUCT CONTAIN PER 1ML OR 1CC?

MOST COMPANIES OR MANUFACTURERS DO NOT HAVE THE FINANCIAL RESOURCES TO HAVE THEIR PRODUCTS TESTED BY A THIRD PARTY, OR THEY WISH NOT TO HAVE THEM TESTED SINCE THE TEST RESULTS MAY BE DISAPPOINTING.

Regardless, as a consumer you must ask the exact amount of the live MSC (Mesynchymal Stem Cells) that the end-product (the product you will be injected with) contains for each 1cc or 1ml. Why? A product that lacks live MSC’s or does not contain live stem cells will not produce the result you are looking for. 

Our Stem Cell injections have a counted number of cells. The relationship between CCs and cells includes:

  • 1.0 CC – 1.1 Million Cells
  • 2.0 CC – 2.2 Million Cells
  • 4.0 CC – 4.4 Million Cells

CONCLUSION:  The average viable (live) MSC (Mesynchymal Stem Cells) that are in our product ranges for 1.1 million to 4.4 million cells.

QUESTION 3: IS THE PRODUCT IN FULL COMPLIANCE WITH THE FDA GUIDELINES UNDER SECTION 361 HCT/P (HUMAN CELLULAR TISSUES / PRODUCTS)?

Where does umbilical cord tissue come from? 

All birth tissue products are obtained from c-section deliveries from normal, full-term pregnancies in u.s. donors that consent to use of their birth tissues are carefully screened prior to the use of their tissues in manufacturing our products.

Comprehensive medical and social histories of the donors are obtained and tissues are procured, processed, and tested in accordance with standards established by the aatb (american association of tissue banks) and fda requirements to minimize potential risks of disease transmission to recipients. infectious disease testing is performed at a certified laboratory in accordance with the clinical laboratory improvement amendments of 1988 (clia) and 42 cfr part 493.

Each donor is tested for HBSAG (hepatitis b surface antigen), HBCAB (hepatitis b core antibody), HCV (hepatitis c antibody), HIV I/II-AB (antibody to human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and syphilis detection test, HIV NAT (hiv nucleic acid test), and HCV NAT (hcv nucleic acid test).

All products are tested post-sterilization to demonstrate the absence of bacterial and fungal pathogens and are non-pyrogenic. all testing results are reviewed by the medical director of predictive biotech (2749 e. parleys way, suite 101, salt lake city, ut 84109) prior to the release of the product.

The FDA identified “umbilical cord tissue” as a “structural tissue” and states that structural tissue, in addition to cytokines and other factors, can and may have live cells present. the products we use align directly with the fda “homologous use” definition for structural tissues. the product we use is fully compliant with all section 361 regulations of the FDA.

QUESTION 4: HOW IS THE PRODUCT INTRODUCED TO THE BODY?

Stem cells can be injected into any joint or introduced through IV. The injection of the stem cells and the IV of the stem cells only takes a few minutes. As part of your examination prior to your musculoskeletal or joint injection, a diagnostic musculoskeletal (MSK) ultrasound can be performed to determine the current state of the injured area and to identify the specific location of the injury. The ultrasound exam provides real-time imaging that can evaluate the health/injury of tendons, muscle, ligaments, bone, cartilage, and bursa. After your treatment, we advise our patients to do a hyperbaric chamber session. The hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been shown to significantly increase the concentration of circulation stem/progenitor cells within the peripheral circulation system. 

CONCLUSION: At Southern Stem Cell Institute we have the ability to use safe msk (musculoskeletal) ultrasound allows for the accurate placement of the product in the damaged or injured areas. 

QUESTION 5: HOW MANY PROCEDURES HAS YOUR COMPANY PERFORMED THUS FAR, AND WHAT IS YOUR SUCCESS RATE?

Southern Stem Cell Institute has performed thousands of procedures. At Southern Stem Cell Institute, we specialize in stem cell therapy. We treat patients with conditions that recent literature and published research, along with our vast experience show to be responding very well to our pure Wharton’s Jelly MSC’s. These conditions include neuropathy, a multitude of orthopedic conditions and auto-immune disorders. There are no guarantees in medicine. However, our current success rate across our clinics nationwide is 94.4%. That is an extremely high success rate which we contribute to our highly professional approach.

UMBILICAL CORD & WHARTON’S JELLY

Immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stromal cells derived from amnion, placenta, Wharton's jelly and umbilical cord

This study aimed to explore alternative sources of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), as deriving cells from bone marrow is an invasive procedure.  The study sought out more accessible sources of MSC, such as from amnion, placenta, Wharton’s jelly and umbilical cord, which are usually discarded.  The study concluded that these alternative sources may potentially be used in place of bone marrow-derived MSCs in several therapeutic applications.

Immune characterization of mesenchymal stem cells in human umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly and derived cartilage cells

This study focused on the immune characterizations of mesenchymal stem cells, derived from Wharton’s jelly found in human umbilical cords.  It was found that these cells have very low immunogenicity and good potential to tolerate rejection. Their intermediate state between adult and embryonic stem cells makes them an ideal candidate for reprogramming to the pluripotent status.

A comparison of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells for cartilage tissue engineering

Compared with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs), human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hUCMSCs) have the advantages of abundant supply, painless collection, no donor site morbidity, and faster and longer self-renewal in vitro. In this 6-week study, a chondrogenic (forming cartilage from condensed mesenchyme tissue) comparison was conducted of hBMSCs and hUCMSCs in a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold for the first time.

Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical analysis of multilineage differentiated human dental pulp- and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells

The results demonstrate that at the biochemical and ultrastructural level, that dental pulp-derived MSCs (DPSC) display at least bilineage potential, whereas umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UCSC), which are developmentally more primitive cells, show trilineage potential. It is emphasized that transmission electron microscopical analysis is useful to elucidate detailed structural information and provides indisputable evidence of differentiation. These findings highlight their potential therapeutic value for cell-based tissue engineering.

Endothelial differentiation of Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells in comparison with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

These results showed that umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) had higher endothelial differentiation potential than bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). Therefore, umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) are more favorable choice than bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) for neovascularization (the natural formation of new blood vessels) of engineered tissues.

Feasibility, Safety, and Tolerance of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Obstructive Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction

The results of this study suggest that it is safe and feasible to provide cell therapy with intravenous infusion of bone marrow‐derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to lung transplant recipients with moderate obstructive CLAD, warranting future studies to assess the effectiveness of this therapy for management of acute or chronic graft dysfunction.

Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells: a new era for stem cell therapy

The human umbilical cord is a promising source of mesenchymal stem cells (HUCMSCs). Unlike bone marrow stem cells, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUCMSCs) have a painless collection procedure and faster self-renewal properties.  This review critically evaluates their therapeutic value, challenges, and future directions for their clinical applications.

Comparative Characterization of Cells from the Various Compartments of the Human Umbilical Cord Shows that the Wharton’s Jelly Compartment Provides the Best Source of Clinically Utilizable Mesenchymal Stem Cells

The human umbilical cord (UC) is an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with unique advantages over other MSC sources. They have been isolated from different compartments of the UC but there has been no rigorous comparison to identify the compartment with the best clinical utility. This study compared the histology, fresh and cultured cell numbers, morphology, proliferation, viability, stemness characteristics and differentiation potential of cells from the amnion (AM), subamnion (SA), perivascular (PV), Wharton’s jelly (WJ) and mixed cord (MC) of five UCs.

Taken together, it appears that MSCs from the Wharton’s jelly are more superior than those from the PV, SA, AM and MC in terms of clinical utility and research value because: (i) their isolation is simple, quick and easy to standardize, (ii) they have lesser non-stem cell contaminants (iii) they are rich in stemness characteristics, (iv) they can be generated in large numbers with minimal manipulation, (v) they are proliferative and (vi) have broad and efficient differentiation potential.  They will thus be stable and attractive candidates for research and future cell-based therapies when derived, propagated and characterized correctly.

The results of this study show that when isolating MSCs from the umbilical cord, the Wharton’s jelly should be the preferred compartment, and a standardized method of derivation must be used so as to make meaningful comparisons of data between research groups.

Different populations and sources of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC): A comparison of adult and neonatal tissue-derived MSC

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from birth-associated tissues, preferably parts of the placenta and the umbilical cord/Wharton’s jelly (UC- and WJ-MSC) may offer certain advantages. These include their non-invasive and ethically non-problematic availability. More importantly, MSC from these neonatal tissues possess increased proliferative (to multiply rapidly producing more tissue) capacity in vitro, in comparison to some MSC populations obtained from adult tissues.

The umbilical cord matrix is a better source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) than the umbilical cord blood

According to the critical parameters of sample selection described in this study, and using different culture media proposed to enhance the growth of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), in parallel with the use of different methods of cell isolation, the researchers were not able to establish MSC cultures from more than one out of 15 UCB samples. Given the high frequency of MSC in UCM, the study hypothesizes that there may be MSC contamination while collecting cord blood. This may explain the rare described cases where MSC isolation from UCB has been possible. However, it could not be ascertained whether the collection method may have caused the disappearance of circulating MSC from the cord blood MNC compartment in favor of the endothelial/subendothelial layer of the UCM. They conclude that UCB can be excluded as a reliable source of MSC in favor of the richer and more reproducible source that is the UCM, meaning the umbilical cord matrix (UCM) is a better source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) than the umbilical cord blood (UCB).

Umbilical Cord Tissue Offers the Greatest Number of Harvestable Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Research and Clinical Application: A Literature Review of Different Harvest Sites

This study discusses how large variations in cell harvest yields remain for each major tissue site for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as reported in literature to date. Reviewed research supports the understanding that placental tissue provides the highest concentration of cells whereas adipose tissue offers the highest levels of autologous cells. Consequently, considerations must be made regarding the non-autologous nature of umbilical cord derived stem cells, as well as the increased post-harvest processing required for adipose-derived stem cells, for the purposes of research and clinical application.

Discarded Wharton’s Jelly of the Human Umbilical Cord: A Viable Source for Mesenchymal Stem Cells

This study discusses how Wharton’s jelly is a predominantly good source of cells because mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in Wharton’s jelly (WJ-MSC) are maintained in a very early embryological phase and therefore have retained some of the primitive stemness properties. WJ-MSCs can easily differentiate into a plethora of cell types leading to a variety of applications. WJ-MCSs are still the ideal future for cell therapy; their properties of high proliferation capability and versatility to differentiate between three lineages allow them to lower immunogenicity and have the potential to treat an array of diseases and disorders.

Umbilical Cord as Prospective Source for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy

The human umbilical cord is a source of MSCs that have: (i) a unique combination of prenatal and postnatalMSCs properties; (ii) no ethical problems with obtaining biomaterial; (iii) significant proliferative and differentiation potential; (iv) lack of tumorigenicity; (v) karyotype stability; (vi) high immunomodulatory activity.

Currently isolated and cultured umbilical cord MSCs are a promising storage object of the leading biobanks of the world, and the number of registered clinical trials on their use is currently growing.

Umbilical Cord as Prospective Source for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy

The human umbilical cord is a source of MSCs that have: (i) a unique combination of prenatal and postnatalMSCs properties; (ii) no ethical problems with obtaining biomaterial; (iii) significant proliferative and differentiation potential; (iv) lack of tumorigenicity; (v) karyotype stability; (vi) high immunomodulatory activity.

Currently isolated and cultured umbilical cord MSCs are a promising storage object of the leading biobanks of the world, and the number of registered clinical trials on their use is currently growing.

Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Do Not Undergo Malignant Transformation during Long-Term Culturing in Serum-Free Medium

In this study, there was no obvious chromosome elimination, displacement, or chromosomal imbalance as determined from the guidelines of the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Telomerase activity was down-regulated significantly when the culture time was prolonged. Further, no tumors formed in rats injected with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) cultured in serum-free and in serum containing conditions.

This study concluded that their data showed that hUC-MSCs met the International Society for Cellular Therapy sandards for conditions of long-term in vitro culturing. Since hUC-MSCs can be safely expanded in vitro and are not susceptible to malignant transformation in serum-free medium, these cells are suitable for cell therapy.

Comparative Analysis Of Bone Marrow and Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells

Taken together, Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) display decreased cellular senescence after extended in vitro culture, increased proliferative capacity and reduced potential to differentiate in vitro to adipocytes and osteocytes, as compared to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). The last two observations can be explained, at least partly, by the aberrant expression of Wnt-signaling molecules in WJ-MSCs. The emerging role of Wnt-signaling pathway in WJ-MSC biology is currently under investigation.

Mesenchymal stem cells derived from Wharton’s Jelly of the umbilical cord: biological properties and emerging clinical applications

This study suggests there is accumulating interest in identifying alternative sources for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). To this end MSCs obtained from the Wharton’s Jelly (WJ) of umbilical cords (UC) have gained much attention over the years since they can be easily isolated, without any ethical concerns, from a tissue which is discarded after birth. Furthermore, MSCs derived from Wharton’s Jelly represent a more primitive population than their adult counterparts, opening new perspectives for cell-based therapies.

In this review, they first give an overview of the biology of MSCs derived from the umbilical cord Wharton’s Jelly.  They then look at these MSCs potential application for the treatment of cancer and immune mediated disorders, such as graft versus host disease (GVHD) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).  Finally, their putative role as feeder layer for ex vivo hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) expansion is pointed out.

Wharton’s Jelly Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Future of Regenerative Medicine? Recent Findings and Clinical Significance

Taken together, the clinical implication of oxidative stress, telomere length, DNA damage and disease has impaired the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) isolated from aged patients. These changes in MSC biology indicate that aged patients may require an alternative source of stem cells for treatment. The high efficiency of Wharton’s Jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSC) recovery, the minimal ethical concerns associated with its acquirement and use, low immunogenicity, and the fact that they are from healthy, young donors make them an ideal source of MSC for autologous and allogeneic applications.

Wharton’s jelly as a reservoir of peptide growth factors

The amounts of peptide growth factors calculated per microgram of DNA are distinctly higher in Wharton’s jelly in comparison to the umbilical cord artery. Western blot analysis demonstrated that almost the entire amount of these factors is bound to high molecular weight components. Since the number of cells in Wharton’s jelly is very low and the amounts of extracellular matrix components are very high, it is concluded that the cells are strongly stimulated by peptide growth factors to produce large amounts of collagen and glycosaminoglycans.

ORTHOPEDIC CONDITIONS & SPORTS INJURIES

Characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells derived from Wharton’s jelly of human umbilical cord and for fabrication of non-scaffold tissue-engineered cartilage

Once cartilage is damaged, it has limited potential for self-repair. Autologous chondrocyte implantation is an effective treatment, but patients may suffer during cartilage harvesting and the donor-site morbidity may accelerate joint degeneration. Using autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived chondrocytes is another selection, while it also causes some injuring. The umbilical cord, an ecto-embryo tissue may be an ideal source of cells, because of its accessibility, abundant resources, painless procedures for harvesting, and lack of ethical issues.  MSCs isolated from Wharton’s jelly of human umbilical cord express characteristics of pre-chondrocytes, low immunogenicity and are easy to be obtained with higher purity because there have no hematopoietic cells in Wharton’s jelly, so it may be a new seed cells more suitable for constructing tissue-engineered cartilage.

Mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative medicine: Focus on articular cartilage and intervertebral disc regeneration

This study focuses on stem cell based therapeutics for . cartilage and intervertebral disc (IVD) repair.  It concludes that mesenchymal stem cell based therapies offer huge potential to revolutionize the treatment of cartilage defects and IVD degeneration

Regeneration of Full‐Thickness Rotator Cuff Tendon Tear After Ultrasound‐Guided Injection With Umbilical Cord Blood‐Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rabbit Model

Rotator cuff tendon tear is one of the most common causes of chronic shoulder pain and disability. In this study, they investigated the therapeutic effects of ultrasound‐guided human umbilical cord blood (UCB)‐derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) injection to regenerate a full‐thickness subscapularis tendon tear in a rabbit model by evaluating the gross morphology and histology of the injected tendon and motion analysis of the rabbit’s activity.

This study concluded that UCB‐derived MSC injection under ultrasound guidance without surgical repair or bioscaffold resulted in the partial healing of full‐thickness rotator cuff tendon tears in a rabbit model. Histology revealed that UCB‐derived MSCs induced regeneration of rotator cuff tendon tears and that the regenerated tissue was predominantly composed of type I collagens. In addition, motion analysis showed better walking capacity after MSC injection than HA or normal saline injection. These results suggest that ultrasound‐guided UCB‐derived MSC injection may be a useful conservative treatment for full‐thickness rotator cuff tendon tear repair.

Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells reduce monosodium iodoacetate-induced apoptosis in cartilage

Based on the present findings, this study conclude that human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUCMSCs) can fulfill mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) characteristics with mesoderm differentiation capability. HUCMSCs can assist monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-treated mice in regeneration of hyaline cartilage and/or repair of cartilage damage and in ameliorating cartilage apoptosis. These effects can be associated with motor behavioral improvement. Thus, HUCMSCs may be a feasible source for stem cell treatment for Osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage repair.

Effects of insulin-like growth factor-induced Wharton jelly mesenchymal stem cells toward chondrogenesis in an osteoarthritis model

This study aimed to determine the collagen type II (COL2) and SOX9 expression in interleukin growth factor (IGF-1)-induced Wharton’s Jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) and the level of chondrogenic markers in co-culture IGF1-WJMSCs and IL1β-CHON002 as osteoarthritis (OA) cells model.

The study concluded that the IGF1-induced WJMSCs were capable to enhance chondrogenesis, indicated by increased expression of SOX9 and COL2 and decreased expression of ADAMTS1, ADAMTS5, MMP3, MMP1, and RANKL. These findings can be further used in the osteoarthritis treatment.

Effect of nicotine on the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of the human Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disease characterized by a progressive and irreversible degeneration of articular cartilage. Among the environmental risk factors of OA, tobacco consumption features prominently, although, there is a great controversy regarding the role of tobacco smoking in OA development. Among the numerous chemicals present in cigarette smoke, nicotine is one of the most physiologically active molecules.

At the concentration used, the study concluded that nicotine had an adverse effect on the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from the human Wharton’s jelly (hWJ-MSCs).

Human Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells Maintain the Expression of Key Immunomodulatory Molecules When Subjected to Osteogenic, Adipogenic and Chondrogenic Differentiation In Vitro: New Perspectives for Cellular Therapy

This study suggests that after the acquisition of a mature phenotype, Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cell (WJMSCs)-derived cells may maintain their immune privilege. This evidence, which deserves much work to be confirmed in vivo and in other mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) populations, may provide a formal proof of the good results globally achieved with WJMSCs as cellular therapy vehicle.

Cartilage Repair in the Knee Using Umbilical Cord Wharton’s Jelly–Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Embedded Onto Collagen Scaffolding and Implanted Under Dry Arthroscopy

Cell-based cartilage repair procedures are becoming more widely available and have shown promising potential to treat a wide range of cartilage lesion types and sizes, particularly in the knee joint.  This study presents a technique of cartilage repair in the knee using Wharton’s jelly–derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) embedded onto scaffolding and implanted in a minimally invasive fashion using dry arthroscopy.

The ability of these cells to promote chondrogenesis, without eliciting an immunogenic response, makes them an excellent candidate for providing cell-based cartilage repair in an off-the-shelf fashion. Moreover, use of Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) for cartilage repair in older patients will address concerns related to MSC number and immunomodulatory capacity with autologous harvest in aging patients, making this technique a promising advancement in the treatment of cartilage injury for this demographic.

Role of mesenchymal stem cells in osteoarthritis treatment

Without an effective cure, Osteoarthritis (OA) remains a significant clinical burden on our elderly population. The advancement of regenerative medicine and innovative stem cell technology offers a unique opportunity to treat this disease. In this study, they examine OA and the likely resolution with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs have been one of the highlights in stem cell research in recent years. Although the application of MSCs in joint repair is well established, it is particularly exciting about MSCs being used for OA treatment.

Mesenchymal stem cells for cartilage regeneration in osteoarthritis

In summary, this study shows that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be employed successfully to treat mild to moderate osteoarthritis (OA) through various ways. They provide alternative treatment options and treatment can start early during progression of OA. The traditional major surgeries used to treat late stages are expensive and come with risks. The less invasive techniques outlined in this review have revealed good outcomes, but the field merits further investigation. Superior outcome was evident with greater quantity of MSCs injected. Allogenic cells from healthy young donors can also be utilized. These findings have further empowered researchers to investigate the potentials of MSCs for tissue engineering and a number of clinical trials are now underway. Most of the emphasis on minimally invasive therapeutic alternatives including intraarticular injections of MSCs, aim to cut out cost and risks of major surgeries. 

NEUROPATHY

Enhanced neuro-therapeutic potential of Wharton’s Jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells in comparison with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells culture

In this study, they have examined stromal stem cells derived either from umbilical cord Wharton’s Jelly (WJ-MSC) or bone marrow (BM-MSC) of adult, healthy donors.  WJ-MSC, in comparison with BM-MSC, exhibited a higher proliferation rate, a greater expansion capability being additionally stimulated under low-oxygen atmosphere, enhanced neurotrophic factors gene expression and spontaneous tendency toward a neural lineage differentiation commitment confirmed by protein and gene marker induction. The data suggest that WJ-MSC may represent an example of immature-type “pre-MSC,” where a substantial cellular component is embryonic-like, pluripotent derivatives with the default neural-like differentiation.

Human umbilical cord Wharton’s Jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiation into nerve-like cells

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), isolated from human umbilical cord Wharton’s Jelly, were capable of differentiating into nerve-like cells using Salvia miltiorrhiza or beta-mercaptoethanol. The induced MSCs not only underwent morphologic changes, but also expressed the neuron-related genes and neuronal cell markers. They may represent an alternative source of stem cells for central nervous system cell transplantation.

Perspectives of employing mesenchymal stem cells from the Wharton’s jelly of the umbilical cord for peripheral nerve repair

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from Wharton’s jelly present high plasticity and low immunogenicity, making them a desirable form of cell therapy for an injured nervous system. Their isolation, expansion, and characterization have been performed from cryopreserved umbilical cord tissue. The MSCs from Wharton’s jelly delivered through tested biomaterials should be regarded a potentially valuable tool to improve clinical outcome especially after trauma to sensory nerves. In addition, these cells represent a noncontroversial source of primitive mesenchymal progenitor cells, which can be harvested after a healthy birth, cryogenically stored, thawed, and expanded for therapeutic uses.

Human mesenchymal stem cells improve the neurodegeneration of femoral nerve in a diabetic foot ulceration rats

In this study, the data suggested that human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (hMSCs-UC) treatment partially reversed the neuronal degeneration and nerve function of femoral nerve (FN), which might be contributed by the upregulation of NGF with dramatic angiogenesis in FN-innervated gastrocnemius, consequently reversing neuronal structure and function, preventing or curing foot ulceration.

Stem Cell Technology for Neurodegenerative Diseases

Over the past 20 years, stem cell technologies have become an increasingly attractive option to investigate and treat neurodegenerative diseases.  This study explains the various types of stem cells utilized in neurodegenerative disease research and details the current progress regarding the applications of stem cell therapies to specific neurodegenerative diseases, focusing on Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy.  As this study mentions, there is growing public hope that stem cell therapies will continue to progress into realistic and efficacious treatments for neurodegenerative diseases.

Stem Cells for the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain

Stem cell transplantation can effectively relieve neuropathic pain under different pathological conditions. However, it is interesting to point out that peripheral neuropathic pain seems to be more responsive to stem cell therapy than SCI (Spinal Cord Injury) induced chronic pain. Moreover, stem cell treatment does not always exert positive results in SCI-induced chronic pain (e.g. aggravating pain above the lesion spinal cord segment).

Mesenchymal stem cells to treat diabetic neuropathy: a long and strenuous way from bench to the clinic

This study discusses how diabetic neuropathy (DN) frequently leads to foot ulcers and ultimately limb amputations without effective clinical therapy. DN is characterized by reduced vascularity in the peripheral nerves and deficiency in angiogenic and neurotrophic factors. Only delivering neurotrophic or angiogenic factors for treatment in the form of protein or gene therapy is very modest if not ineffective.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been highlighted as a new emerging regenerative therapy owing to their multipotency for DN.  MSCs reverse manifestations of DN, repair tissue, and antihyperglycemia. MSCs also paracrinely secrete neurotrophic factors, angiogenic factors, cytokines, and immunomodulatory substances to ameliorate DN.

Challenges in the clinical translation of MSC therapy include safety, optimal dose of administration, optimal mode of cell delivery, issues of MSC heterogeneity, clinically meaningful engraftment, autologous or allogeneic approach, challenges with cell manufacture, and further mechanisms.

Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a Prospective Therapy for the Diabetic Foot

The diabetic foot is a serious complication of diabetes. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an abundant source of stem cells which occupy a special position in cell therapies, and recent studies have suggested that mesenchymal stem cells can play essential roles in treatments for the diabetic foot.  This study discusses the advances that have been made in mesenchymal stem cell treatments for this condition. The roles and functional mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells in the diabetic foot are also summarized, and insights into current and future studies are presented.

Effect of subcutaneous treatment with human umbilical cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells on peripheral neuropathic pain in rats

In this study, the researches aim to determine the in vivo effect of human umbilical cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) on neuropathic pain, using three, principal peripheral neuropathic pain models.  They determined subcutaneous administration of hUCB-MSCs might be beneficial for improving those patients suffering from neuropathic pain by decreasing neuropathic pain activation factors, while increasing neuropathic pain inhibition factor.

Perspectives of employing mesenchymal stem cells from the Wharton’s jelly of the umbilical cord for peripheral nerve repair

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from Wharton’s jelly present high plasticity and low immunogenicity, turning them into a desirable form of cell therapy for the injured nervous system. Their isolation, expansion, and characterization have been performed from cryopreserved umbilical cord tissue. Great concern has been dedicated to the collection, preservation, and transport protocols of the umbilical cord after the parturition to the laboratory in order to obtain samples with higher number of viable MSCs without microbiological contamination.

ED (ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION)

BDNF-hypersecreting human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells promote erectile function in a rat model of cavernous nerve electrocautery injury

Erectile dysfunction (ED) continues to be a significant problem for men following radical prostatectomy.  This study concluded that intracavernous injection of BDNF-hypersecreting human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) can enhance the recovery of erectile function, promote the cavernous nerves regeneration and inhibit corpus cavernosum fibrosis after cavernous nerve electrocautery injury in a rat model.

Erectile dysfunction treated with intracavernous stem cells: A promising new therapy?

Erectile dysfunction (ED) continues to be a significant problem for men following radical prostatectomy.  This study concluded that intracavernous injection of BDNF-hypersecreting human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) can enhance the recovery of erectile function, promote the cavernous nerves regeneration and inhibit corpus cavernosum fibrosis after cavernous nerve electrocautery injury in a rat model.

Stem-cell therapy for erectile dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common sexual disorder that men report to healthcare providers, and is the male sexual dysfunction that has been most investigated. Current treatments for ED focus on relieving the symptoms of ED and therefore tend to provide a temporary solution rather than a cure or reversing the cause.

The rapidly expanding and highly promising body of preclinical work on SC-based medicine providing a potential cure for ED, rather than merely symptom relief, is indicative of the increasing interest in regenerative options for sexual medicine over the past decade. Clinical trials are currently recruiting patients to test the preclinical results in men with ED.

Stem Cell Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction: Progress and Future Directions

Currently, the treatment of ED focuses on symptomatic relief of ED and therefore tends to provide temporary relief rather than providing a cure or reversing the underlying cause. Recently, stem cell-based therapies have received increasing attention regarding their potential for the recovery of erectile function. Preclinical studies have shown that these cells may reverse pathophysiological changes leading to ED rather than treating the symptom ED.

The development of methods to deliver stem cells to the penis has kindled a keen interest in understanding stem cell biology as it related to restoration of normal penile vascular and neuronal homeostasis. The use of stem cells for the treatment of ED represents an exciting new field.

Multipotent stromal cell therapy for cavernous nerve injury-induced erectile dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction (ED) following radical prostatectomy (RP) is a result of inadvertent damage to the cavernous nerves that run close to the prostate capsula. Multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) are an attractive cell source for this application based on their regenerative potential and their clinical applicability. MSCs from both bone marrow and adipose tissue have shown beneficial effects in a variety of animal models for ED.  While the type of model may influence the mechanisms of action of this MSC-based therapy, MSCs generally display efficacy in various animal models for ED.

Stem cell therapies in post-prostatectomy erectile dysfunction: a critical review

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is still a common complication of radical prostatectomy. Current treatments of ED are mainly symptomatic. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely investigated as a potential curative treatment. MSC therapy consistently improved erectile functions after cavernous nerve injury (CNI). There seems to be a consensus on the disease model used and outcome evaluation however further studies should be done.

Advances in stem cell research for the treatment of male sexual dysfunctions

This review summarizes recent literature on basic stem cell research in erectile dysfunction in cavernous nerve injury, aging, diabetes, and Peyronie’s disease and to provide a perspective on clinical translation of these cellular therapies.  In summary, evidence from preclinical studies has established stem cells as a potential curative treatment for erectile dysfunction and early phase clinical trials are currently performed.

Stem Cells in Male Sexual Dysfunction: Are We Getting Somewhere?

Stem cells for sexual disorders are steadily being introduced into clinical trials. Two conditions of importance are the main target for this line of treatment, especially when regarding the wide array of translational and basic science highlighting the potential advantages of regenerative therapy: erectile dysfunction (ED) and more recently Peyronie disease (PD). Cellular therapy offers a treatment modality that might reverse disease progression. It would be used in a curative setting, in contrast to other pharmaceutical agents that are currently available.

This study concludes that stem cells have an established efficacy in preclinical studies and early clinical trials. Studies are currently being published demonstrating the safety of intrapenile injection of autologous bone marrow- and adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

MSC-derived exosomes ameliorate erectile dysfunction by alleviation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle apoptosis in a rat model of cavernous nerve injury

This study investigated the therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes (MSC-Exos) on erectile function in a rat model of cavernous nerve injury (CNI).  It concluded that MSC-derived exosomes ameliorate (make something bad or unsatisfactory better) erectile dysfunction in a rat model of cavernous nerve injury.

ADDITIONAL RESEARCH

Treatment of Psoriasis with Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Psoriasis is an incurable immune-mediated disease, which affects approximately 2% of the world’s population. Current treatments, including newly emerged biologic agents, have some limitations.  In this study, they report two cases of psoriasis vulgaris treated by umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs). In these two cases, both of the patients remained relapse free over periods of several years.

Neural differentiation and potential use of stem cells from the human umbilical cord for central nervous system transplantation therapy

Umbilical cord blood stem cells have demonstrated efficacy in reducing lesion sizes and enhancing behavioral recovery in animal models of ischemic and traumatic central nervous system (CNS) injury. Recent findings suggest that neurons derived from cord stroma mesenchymal cells could alleviate movement disorders in hemiparkinsonian animal models.  In this study, they review the neurogenic potential of umbilical cord stem cells and discuss possibilities of their exploitation as an alternative to human embryonic stem cells or neural stem cells for transplantation therapy of traumatic CNS injury and neurodegenerative diseases.

Discarded Wharton’s Jelly of the Human Umbilical Cord: A Viable Source for Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that have the capability of differentiating into adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, and neural cells. With these multiple capabilities, MSCs have been highly regarded as effective transplantable cell source for regenerative medicine. Recent evidence demonstrates that Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) are potential transplantable cells for treatment of devastating diseases, such as cancer and diabetes. Their use in cell therapy will be an integral addition to the field of regeneration. WJ-MSCs have a multitude of benefits such as their high proliferation rate, lower doubling time, and ability to function with non-immune-suppressed animals.

Apart from cancer treatment WJ-MCSs also can facilitate cell-based therapies for liver diseases and diabetes mellitus due to their high proliferation and differentiation ability.  For example, WJ-MSCs can express hepatoblastic phenotypes and can become liver cells or pancreatic cells.

Human Wharton’s Jelly-Derived Stem Cells Display Immunomodulatory Properties and Transiently Improve Rat Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

Umbilical cord matrix or Wharton’s jelly-derived stromal cells (WJ-MSCs) are an easily accessible source of mesenchymal-like stem cells.  This study shows that WJ-MSCs have trophic support properties and effectively modulate immune cell functioning both in vitro and in the EAE model, suggesting WJ-MSC may hold promise for MS therapy.

Role of Nonmuscle Myosin II in Migration of Wharton’s Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

It is the promise of regeneration and therapeutic applications that has sparked an interest in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Following infusion, MSCs migrate to sites of injury or inflammation by virtue of their homing property. To exert optimal clinical benefits, systemically delivered MSCs need to migrate efficiently and in adequate numbers to pathological areas in vivo. However, underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for MSC migration are still not well understood.  The data in this study suggests that nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) acts as a regulator of cell migration and adhesion in Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs).

Lung mesenchymal stem cells-derived extracellular vesicles attenuate the inflammatory profile of Cystic Fibrosis epithelial cells

Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are multi-potent non-hematopoietic stem cells, residing in most tissues including the lung. MSCs have been used in therapy of chronic inflammatory lung diseases such as Cystic Fibrosis (CF), asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the main beneficial effects reside in the anti-inflammatory potential of the released extracellular vesicles (EVs). Recent reports demonstrate that EVs are effective in animal model of asthma, E.coli pneumonia, lung ischemia-reperfusion, and virus airway infection among others.  The general significance of this study suggests EVs could be a novel strategy to control the hyper-inflamed condition in Cystic Fibrosis.

Interaction of Wharton’s jelly derived fetal mesenchymal cells with tumor cells

Wharton’s jelly (umbilical cord matrix) was proved to be a rich source of MSCs and they can be isolated by non-invasive methods such as Ficoll density gradient and antibodies coupled magnetic beads without any ethical issues.  This review summarizes the potential interaction of fetal mesenchymal stem cells with tumor cells and their use in clinical protocols.

Autologous Cellular Therapy and its Effects on COPD: A Pilot Study

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disorder that often occurs as a result of prolonged cigarette smoking, second-hand smoke, and polluted air or working conditions. COPD is the most prevalent form of chronic lung disease. The physiological symptoms of COPD include shortness of breath (dyspnea), cough, and sputum production, exercise intolerance and reduced Quality of Life (QOL). These signs and symptoms are brought about by chronic inflammation of the airways, which restricts breathing. When fibrotic tissues contract, the lumen is narrowed, compromising lung function.

Initial studies of cells treatments show efficacy, lack of adverse side effects and may be used safely in conjunction with other treatments.  This method of treatment serves as an alternative to expensive lung transplants that have a high probability of rejection by the body, which can create a new set of problems for patients.  In a recent study of regenerative cellular therapy done by the University of Utah, patients exhibited improvement in PFTs and oxygen requirement compared to the control group with no acute adverse events.

COPD Improves with Stem Cell Therapy

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive form of lung disease ranging from mild to severe and characterized by a restriction of airflow into and out of the lungs that makes breathing difficult. Two main forms of COPD are chronic bronchitis and emphysema.  There is currently no cure for COPD, but treatment options such as stem cell therapy can prevent more damage and improve the patient’s quality of life.

Stem cell therapy is a strategy that introduces new adult stem cells into damaged tissue in order to treat disease or injury. The treatments have the potential to change the face of human disease and alleviate suffering. While stem cell therapy can help with COPD symptoms, it is not a definite cure for chronic lung disease.  Still, for many patients, stem cell therapy is the best currently available treatment option.

Stem cell therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: current status of pre-clinical studies and clinical trials

In summary, the approaches discussed for regenerative therapies have demonstrated positive effects in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) animal models and have been safe in clinical trials. However, greater effort must be taken to develop approaches that will lead towards a curing solution to COPD patients.

Stem cell therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. How far is it to the clinic?

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory disease that has a major impact worldwide. The currently-available drugs mainly focus on relieving the symptoms of COPD patients. However, in the latter stages of the disease, the airways become largely obstructed and lung parenchyma becomes destructed due to underlying inflammation. The inappropriate repair of lung tissue after injury may contribute to the development of disease.  Studies suggest that cell-based therapies and novel bioengineering approaches may be potential therapeutic strategies for lung repair and remodeling. In this paper, they review the current evidence of stem cell therapy in COPD.

The clinical use of regenerative therapy in COPD

Regenerative or stem cell therapy is an emerging field of treatment based on stimulation of endogenous resident stem cells or administration of exogenous stem cells to treat diseases or injury and to replace malfunctioning or damaged tissues. Current evidence suggests that in the lung, these cells may participate in tissue homeostasis and regeneration after injury.  The use of bone marrow-derived stem cells could allow repairing and regenerate the damaged tissue present in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by means of their engraftment into the lung.

Concise Review: Clinical Prospects for Treating Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease with Regenerative Approaches

Cell therapies using various stem cells have been extensively evaluated. The lung is one of the easiest organs in which to instill exogenous cells because cells can be applied through both the airway and circulation. In addition, most of the intravenously instilled cells are trapped within the pulmonary circulation; therefore, the efficacy of cell delivery is naturally high.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the most extensively evaluated candidates for clinical cell-based therapy. Many clinical trials using MSCs have been registered and are ongoing. Autologous MSCs are easily isolated from the bone marrow and other tissues. MSCs are expected to reduce inflammation and promote the repair process. These beneficial effects are thought to be based on the ability of MSCs to modulate the immune system and their capacity to produce growth factors and cytokines, such as keratinocyte growth factor, HGF, and prostaglandin E2.

Because of these anti-inflammatory effects, a phase II clinical trial using MSCs has been performed in moderate and severe COPD patients. The trial successfully demonstrated the safety of cell therapies using MSCs and some reduction in the inflammatory response in COPD patients but did not show any beneficial effects on lung function. Additional studies, especially in early-stage COPD patients, are needed.

Stem cell therapy: the great promise in lung disease

Lung injuries are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Pulmonary diseases such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by loss of lung elasticity, small airway tethers, and luminal obstruction with inflammatory mucoid secretions.  The use of adult stem cells to help with lung regeneration and repair could be a newer technology in clinical and regenerative medicine. In fact, different studies have shown that bone marrow progenitor cells contribute to repair and remodeling of lung in animal models of progressive pulmonary hypertension.

Current Status of Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine in Lung Biology and Diseases

Lung diseases remain a significant and devastating cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In contrast to many other major diseases, lung diseases notably chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), including both asthma and emphysema, are increasing in prevalence and COPD is expected to become the 3rd leading cause of disease mortality worldwide by 2020. New therapeutic options are desperately needed. 

A rapidly growing number of investigations of stem cells and cell therapies in lung biology and diseases as well as in ex vivo lung bioengineering have offered exciting new avenues for advancing knowledge of lung biology as well as providing novel potential therapeutic approaches for lung diseases. These initial observations have led to a growing exploration of endothelial progenitor cells and mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells in clinical trials of pulmonary hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with other clinical investigations planned.

Lung Regeneration: Endogenous and Exogenous Stem Cell Mediated Therapeutic Approaches

The tissue turnover of unperturbed adult lung is remarkably slow. However, after injury or insult, a specialized group of facultative lung progenitors become activated to replenish damaged tissue through a reparative process called regeneration. Disruption in this process results in healing by fibrosis causing aberrant lung remodeling and organ dysfunction.  Post-insult failure of regeneration leads to various incurable lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

Therefore, identification of true endogenous lung progenitors/stem cells, and their regenerative pathway are crucial for next-generation therapeutic development. Recent studies provide exciting and novel insights into postnatal lung development and post-injury lung regeneration by native lung progenitors. Furthermore, exogenous application of bone marrow stem cells, embryonic stem cells and inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) show evidences of their regenerative capacity in the repair of injured and diseased lungs.

Endogenous and exogenous stem cells: a role in lung repair and use in airway tissue engineering and transplantation

Rapid repair of the denuded alveolar surface after injury is a key to survival. The respiratory tract contains several sources of endogenous adult stem cells residing within the basal layer of the upper airways, within or near pulmonary neuroendocrine cell rests, at the bronchoalveolar junction, and within the alveolar epithelial surface, which contribute to the repair of the airway wall. Bone marrow-derived adult mesenchymal stem cells circulating in blood are also involved in tracheal regeneration. However, an organism is frequently incapable of repairing serious damage and defects of the respiratory tract resulting from acute trauma, lung cancers, and chronic pulmonary and airway diseases. Therefore, replacement of the tracheal tissue should be urgently considered. The shortage of donor trachea remains a major obstacle in tracheal transplantation. However, implementation of tissue engineering and stem cell therapy-based approaches helps to successfully solve this problem.

Adult stem cells for chronic lung diseases

As a self‐repair mechanism, living organisms have stem cells that are attracted to sites of injury. Chronic injury as well as aging could exhaust and impair stem cell reparative capacity as well as diminish number of available stem cells. The mechanism(s) by which alterations in the homeostasis of stem cells pools are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases is unknown. If stem cell exhaustion and aging is the cause of morbid states, stem cell‐based therapies will be able to prevent and treat them. Restoration of stem cells has shown promising therapeutic benefits for certain lung pathologies. Particularly, the immunomodulatory capacity of bone marrow‐derived mesenchymal stem cell (B‐MSC) has been shown to be beneficial for lung diseases with exacerbated inflammatory responses. However, a generalized use of B‐MSC in chronic lung diseases must be considered with caution, and careful studies are still required to establish safety and efficacy of such use.

Lung regeneration using amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells

Respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary hypertension and lung fibrosis, are yet a major challenge in the world and they result in irreversible structural lung damage. Lung transplantation as the only therapeutic option face some major challenges like graft rejection and cancer, arising as a result of immunosuppression. A low survival rate faced by lung transplantation patients is presently limited to approximately 5 years. Lungs shortage therefore calls for a mechanism that would increase the availability of suitable organs for transplantation. In this review, we give an update on the use of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSCs) as an optimal source for lungs scaffold re-cellularization, due to their limitless accessibility and possibility for proliferation and differentiation. Further studies will be required in tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine (RM), especially shifting our focus towards AFMSCs as a cell source for this regeneration.

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When you contact us for a free consultation with SSCI, we will: 

  • Set aside dedicated time with one of our world-class, professionally trained stem cell specialists so that you can ask any questions. 
  • Give you a very in-depth overview on how stem cell therapy works.
  • Examine your past medical history and conduct a thorough case review to determine if you may be a candidate for stem cell therapy.

Again, our consultations are completely free/at no cost to you. And we have the availability for either in person or over the phone consultations.